Campylobacteriosis is a major infectious disease caused by Campylobacter sps, topping Salmonella. According to WHO, there are currently 17 known species and six subspecies of Campylobacter. C. jejuni and C. coli being the most frequently reported subspecies in connected to human diseases (WHO, 2016). They are Gram negative bacteria with variety of shapes; spiral, rod, curved and S shaped. They are microaerophiles (Carlone and Lascelles, 1982) and are motile (Guerry, 2007).
Clinical symptoms include diarrhea, abdominal pain, fever, vomitting and nausea. Death due to Campylobacter is rare, but is possible in very young patients, elderly patients and those with weak immunity (WHO, 2016).
Campylobacter is distributed in warm blooded animals like cattles, pigs, sheeps, cats and dogs.
Campylobacter is transmitted to human from animal product (zoonosis) by consuming uncooked food, raw or contaminated milk and water. Once in the body, Campylobacter can cause complications like bacterimia, hepatitis, pancreatitis and miscarriage (WHO, 2016).
Usually, campylobacteriosis is a felf-limiting disease. However, in some cases it requires treatment. Treatment includes rehydration with electrolytes. Antimicrobial treatment (erythromycin, tetracycline, quinolones) is recommended when bacteria invade the intestinal mucosa cells and damage the tissues or to eliminate the carrier state (WHO, 2016).
WHO (2016) Campylobacter. Available at: http://www.who.int/mediacentre/factsheets/fs255/en/ (Accessed: 13 November 2016).
Guerry, P. (2007) ‘Campylobacter flagella: Not just for motility’, Trends in microbiology., 15(10), pp. 456–61.
Carlone, G. and Lascelles, J. (1982) ‘Aerobic and anaerobic respiratory systems in Campylobacter fetus subsp. Jejuni grown in atmospheres containing hydrogen’, Journal of bacteriology., 152(1), pp. 306–14.
F Mushi, M., Paterno, L., Tappe, D., Deogratius, A.P., Seni, J., Moremi, N., Mirambo, M.M. and Mshana, S.E. (2014) Research Gate. Available at: https://www.researchgate.net/publication/271214444_Evaluation_of_detection_methods_for_Campylobacter_infections_among_under-fives_in_Mwanza_City_Tanzania?_sg=BmWDFyWEHJk7wM86-wF25qYFD3UqpY2g8A3CRGEblhuVpZ1ezx_pWDBYfPZHhVWg2Iwp1U_gZyaaJBOMVbfJIA (Accessed: 12 January 2017).